Ketzin, DE

At the Ketzin CCS pilot site, 25 km west of Berlin, national and European projects coordinated by the German Research Centre for Geosciences....

At the Ketzin CCS pilot site, 25 km west of Berlin, national and European projects coordinated by the German Research Centre for Geosciences (Deutsches GeoForschungsZentrum GFZ) are dedicated to advancing our scientific understanding of how to geologically store CO2, and the processes of subsurface CO2 injection and migration, by:

  • Portraying the facies conditions of the CO2 storage formation in Ketzin, Germany
  • Demonstrating how a geological model can be developed based on limited exploration data
  • Performing stochastic modelling for the simulation of geometry and grid properties
  • Determining the consequences of the geological setting on the distribution of CO2
  • Illustrating the iterative nature of reservoir modelling

The site has five boreholes drilled (from 2007 onwards) at variable depths up to 800 m, specifically for the testing of CO2 injection into potential storage layers.  The depth variation is due to the target CO2 sandstone store (Triassic Stuttgart Formation) being gently deformed because of underlying Permian salt diapirs. The Stuttgart Formation is locally a natural saline aquifer, whilst the stratigraphically higher Jurassic sandstones have been used previously for commercial gas storage. The target sandstone store is capped by variable thick sequences of clay- and mudstones.

The boreholes include one dedicated to CO2 injection, with the other four functioning as observation wells instrumented with a mixture of geochemical and geophysical monitoring tools. The geology of the Ketzin site has been relatively well constrained by numerous seismic profiles, boreholes and other legacy data.

The pilot Ketzin project has a number of themes that broadly cover all aspects of CO2 injection, storage and storage risks; all of which incorporate aspects of science-advocacy and public engagement.  Major Ketzin projects include:

  • COMPLETE (CO2 post-injection monitoring and post-closure phase at the Ketzin pilot site)
  • CO2MAN (CO2 reservoir management)
  • GeoEn (geoenergy research)
  • CHEMKIN (real-time observation of the chemical and kinetic behaviour of carbon dioxide during geological sequestration)
  • CO2CARE (CO2 site closure assessment research)
  • CO2SINK (CO2 storage by injection into a natural saline aquifer at Ketzin)
  • CO2ReMoVe (CO2 Research Monitoring Verification)
  • GRASP (Greenhouse-gas Removal Apprenticeship & Student Program)
  • HAI (Helmholtz-Alberta Initiative)
  • COORETEC (CO2 reduction technologies)

CO2 injection has now ceased but, over the five years the site was operational (June 2008 to August 2013), a total of 67,271 tons of CO2 were injected into the subsurface.  Following injection, the site moved into abandonment and monitoring.  Monitoring will continue until 2018 as the site is closed and injection facilities are dismantled. A proportion of stored CO2 has also been recovered into surface storage tanks, for analysis and comparison with samples of the same CO2 taken before injection.

Post-closure monitoring at Ketzin involves 20 stations that variably monitor CO2 concentrations at the surface, groundwater composition, groundwater pH and conductivity. Stored CO2 is also monitored using seismic and other geophysical techniques, and pressure and temperature information is also recorded at the wellheads.

References to indicative papers can be found in:

Martens, S., Conze, R., De Lucia, M., Henninges, J., Kempka, T., Liebscher, A., Lüth, S., Möller, F., Norden, B., Prevedel, B., Schmidt-Hattenberger, C., Szizybalski, A., Vieth-Hillebrand, A., Würdemann, H., Zemke, K., Zimmer, M., 2015. Joint Research Project CO2MAN (CO2MAN Reservoir Management): Continuation of Research and Development Work for CO2 Storage at the Ketzin Pilot Site, in: Liebscher, A., Münch, U. (Eds.), Geological Storage of CO2 - Long Term Security Aspects. Springer International Publishing, pp. 1-32.

More details about the Ketzin GeoEnergy Test Bed can be found at


There are more facilities to come, we are currently in discussion with these facilities about engaging them in the TCS. We would be extremely happy to hear about other facilities that would like to engage.